9 Signs and Symptoms of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that your body needs for processes like energy production, DNA synthesis, and central nervous system function. Unfortunately, a deficiency in this vitamin can lead to multiple health issues. In this article, you will learn about 9 commonly reported symptoms connected to B12 deficiency.


If you are low on vitamin B12, you will feel fatigued because your body needs it to function properly. The inadequate B12 levels can also decrease normal red blood cell production, which could impair oxygen delivery.


Headaches are among the most common symptoms of B12 deficiency in adults and children. According to a 2019 study involving 140 people, it was discovered that blood vessels of B12 were a lot lower in participants suffering migraines.

Pale or Yellow Skin

If you have a B12 deficiency, it could make your skin pale due to a lack of healthy red blood cells in your body. It could also cause Jaundice, making your skin yellow due to high bilirubin levels.

Gastrointestinal Issues

A vitamin B12 deficiency could lead to multiple gastrointestinal issues such as constipation, gas, bloating, diarrhea, and nausea.

Depressive Symptoms

If you have a B12 deficiency, there is also an increased risk of developing depression. This is because low B12 levels can increase the amount of homocysteine in your body and contribute to the development of depression.

Pain and Inflammation of the Mouth and Tongue

Your B12 deficiency could result in glossitis, a medical term for an inflamed, red, and painful tongue. This could also appear with stomatitis, a condition characterized by sores and inflammation in the mouth.

Difficulty Concentrating and Mental Impairment

If you have a vitamin B12 deficiency, it could negatively affect your central nervous system. This could make you feel foggy-headed and experience difficulty concentrating and completing tasks.

Paresthesia in Hands and Feet

A vitamin B12 deficiency can cause paresthesia, which is a burning sensation in your hands and feet. Unfortunately, this symptom overlaps with symptoms relating to diabetic neuropathy and nerve damage caused by high blood sugar, which can cause pain and numbness in your extremities.

As a result, people with diabetes that take metformin have a higher risk of developing B12 deficiency. This is because the medication can reduce vitamin B12 absorption in the body. Therefore, multiple experts recommend that people taking metformin regularly should get screened for vitamin B12 deficiency.


A vitamin B12 deficiency could result in different symptoms, such as fatigue, depression, and headaches. If you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above, you must visit a healthcare professional to get the right treatment.